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With the development of research and processing technology, magnesium alloys may serve as a perfect alternative material for orthopedic implants [ 37 , 38 ]. In any case, it takes decades for the transition of a new material to move from the laboratory to the clinic, and titanium remains the ideal alternative for bone material until a more enhanced version is put to use. Regarding the limitation of this study, firstly, the mechanical model between dentition and the mandibular ramus is difficult to predict, and this study only considered the ideal condition in which the load applied to the dentition was applied to the surface of the mandible.

Secondly, there are only a few reports on muscle force after mandibular reconstruction, and thus, it is unclear whether this has any effect on the force exerted by the muscles. We only consider the ideal case, and that there is no change in muscle strength before and after reconstruction. Thirdly, this study only considered the most commonly INC and LMOL loads; however, in some uncommon extreme occlusal loads, the instantaneous peak stress of the porous structure may exceed the target stress value.

Finally, this research assumed that the bone union was at a later stage. That is, the porous structure had adhered to the mandible. However, the combination of porous structure and mandible is dynamic, and more healing stages need to be considered to evaluate the mechanical properties of a porous structure. In this work, an optimization algorithm for a tetrahedral porous structure having controllable peak stress and high porosity was proposed based on finite element design and simulation.

A defected mandible is taken as an example, the porous structure was designed with a suitable pore shape and size, and the strut diameters were optimized under two different mastication loads. The numerical simulation results showed that the optimization of the porous structure had little effect on the stress distribution and maximum stress value of mandible and fixation system.

The peak stress of the optimized porous structure was lower than the target stress value, and the porosity increased. The optimized porous structure with appropriate peak stress to prevent fatigue failure and higher porosity to increase permeability is a good choice for mandibular reconstruction.

However, mandibular prosthesis design is a complex issue that has puzzled researchers for a long time, and thus, more supporting materials are still required.

For example, mechanical tests and the corresponding animal experiments on mandible segmental defects are necessary procedures. The simulation data during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Wen-Ming Chen. Received 09 Dec Revised 13 May Accepted 30 May Published 24 Jun Abstract A porous material is considered to be a potential material that can be used to repair bone defects. Introduction Treatment of large segmental bone defects in the mandible caused by trauma, benign or malignant tumor, remains a challenge for surgeons to date [ 1 ].

Materials and Methods 2. Reverse Modeling and Implant Components The preparation of the structural design for mandibular defects is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. Implant components. Figure 3. Tetrahedral porous structure formation process. Figure 4. Muscular forces blue arrow and constraints triangle applied in finite element simulation. Algorithm 1. Optimization algorithm of strut diameter 0. Figure 5. Figure 6. Geometric features of the porous structures. The seven colors represent different strut diameters, ranging from 0.

Figure 7. Table 1. The performance parameters of four porous structures, including the porosity and the peak stress under two different clenching loadings. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure References C. Shiboski, B. Schmidt, and R.

Pare, A. Bossard, B. Laure, P. Weiss, O. Gauthier, and P. Lim, M. Kim, and S. Rommel, M. Kesting, N. Rohleder, F. Bauer, K. Wolff, and J. Okay, A. Al Shetawi, S. Moubayed, M. Mourad, D. Buchbinder, and M. Rendenbach, A. Rashad, L. Hansen et al. Marew and G.

Abdelrhman, M. Gepreel, S. Kobayashi, S. Okano, and T. C, Materials for Biological Applications , vol. Tan, Y. Tan, C. Chow, S. Tor, and W. Liu and Y. Sing, J. An, W. Yeong, and F. Ryan, A. Activation is a one-time process that requires that you have internet or email access to complete the process.

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Step 5: Get Started with Your New Software After your order is completed, we provide you with your serial numbers as well as additional information about getting started. Data Management. Managed Services. Training Information. Technical Support. Archives Solutions: When experiencing this issue there are three common solutions that will resolve most cases. I will list them here then elaborate further on the process for each: Optimize for Compatibility — An option found in Microsoft Excel to improve compatibility with using multiple displays.

Ensure 64 bit Microsoft Office is installed rather than 32 bit, especially when using Office Disable any alternative graphic device such as integrated Intel card outside of dedicated graphics card.

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Geomagic design x 2016 free –

Figure Figure 3. The part should look like Figure Figure 63 — Remove Peninsula 5.